Urologic cancers affect the organs and structures of the male and female urinary system and the male reproductive system. These cancers are fairly common in both men and women. The main types of urologic cancers include urinary bladder cancer, kidney cancers, testicular cancer and penile and urethral cancers. Urologic cancer symptoms vary depending on the specific cancer type, and may include abdominal pain, blood in urine, enlarged prostate and elevated hormone levels in blood. The diagnostic tests depend on specific symptoms and may include biopsy to confirm diagnosis, blood tests to evaluate hormone levels, CT/MRI or PET Scan for disease staging.
In most cases, surgery is the primary cancer treatment and may include a major surgical and reconstructive procedure to remove the organ involved e.g. nephrectomy, cystectomy, prostatectomy and orchidectomy. In addition some patients also need chemotherapy and or radiotherapy either in preop or postop setting.